Heap preprocessor metaprogram. More...
Macros  
#define  VL_HEAP_array VL_HEAP_type* 
#define  VL_HEAP_prefix HeapObject 
#define  VL_HEAP_type HeapType 
#define  VL_HEAP_array HeapType* 
#define  VL_HEAP_array HeapType const* 
Functions  
vl_uindex  vl_heap_parent (vl_uindex index) 
Get index of parent node. More...  
vl_uindex  vl_heap_left_child (vl_uindex index) 
Get index of left child. More...  
vl_uindex  vl_heap_right_child (vl_uindex index) 
Get index of right child. More...  
VL_HEAP_type  VL_HEAP_cmp (VL_HEAP_array_const array, vl_uindex indexA, vl_uindex indexB) 
Compare two heap elements. More...  
void  VL_HEAP_swap (VL_HEAP_array array, vl_uindex indexA, vl_uindex indexB) 
Swap two heap elements. More...  
void  VL_HEAP_up (VL_HEAP_array array, vl_size heapSize, vl_uindex index) 
Heap up operation. More...  
void  VL_HEAP_down (VL_HEAP_array array, vl_uindex index) 
Heap down operation. More...  
void  VL_HEAP_push (VL_HEAP_array array, vl_size *heapSize) 
Heap push operation. More...  
vl_uindex  VL_HEAP_pop (VL_HEAP_array array, vl_size *heapSize) 
Heap pop operation. More...  
void  VL_HEAP_update (VL_HEAP_array array, vl_size heapSize, vl_uindex index) 
Heap update operation. More...  
Detailed Description
A heap organizes an array of objects in a priority queue. This module is a template metaprogram that defines heap operations on array of generic objects, or even generic object containers.
Overview
To use heapdef.h one must specify at least a prefix and the data type for the heap elements:
This code fragment defines a number of functions prefixed by VL_HEAP_prefix, such as my_heap_push
(VL_HEAP_push) and my_heap_pop
(VL_HEAP_pop), that implement the heap operations. These functions operate on an array that has type VL_HEAP_array. By default, this is defined to be:
The array itself is accessed uniquely by means of two functions:
 VL_HEAP_cmp, that compares two array elements. The default implementation assumes that VL_HEAP_type is numeric.
 VL_HEAP_swap, that swaps two array elements. The default implementation assumes that VL_HEAP_type can be copied by the
=
operator.
The heap state is a integer numElements
(of type vl_size) counting the number of elements of the array that are currently part of the heap and the content of the first numElements
elements of the array. The portion of the array that constitutes the heap satisfies a certain invariant property (heap property, Technical details). From a user viewpoint, the most important consequence is that the first element of the array (the one of index 0) is also the smallest (according to VL_HEAP_cmp).
Elements are added to the heap by VL_HEAP_push and removed from the heap by VL_HEAP_pop. A push operation adds to the heap the array element immediately after the last element already in the heap (i.e. the element of index numElements
) and increases the number of heap elements numElements
. Elements in the heap are swapped as required in order to maintain the heap consistency. Similarly, a pop operation removes the first (smaller) element from the heap and decreases the number of heap elements numElements
.
The values of nodes currently in the heap can be updated by VL_HEAP_update. Notice however that using this function requires knowing the index of the element that needs to be updated up to the swapping operations that the heap performs to maintain consistency. Typically, this requires redefining VL_HEAP_swap to keep track of such changes (General usage).
General usage
The heap container may be mapped to any type by reimplementing VL_HEAP_cmp and VL_HEAP_swap explicitly. For instance the following code redefines VL_HEAP_cmp to deal with the case in which the heap is an array of structures:
In the following example, the heap itself is an arbitrary structure:
Technical details
The heap is organised as a binary tree with the property (heap property) that any node is not larger than any of its children. In particular, the root is the smallest node.
heapdef.h uses the standard binary tree representation as a linear array. Tree nodes are mapped to array elements as follows: array[0]
corresponds to the root, array[1]
and array[2]
to the root left and right children and so on. In this way, the tree structure is fully specified by the total number of nodes N
.
Assuming that the heap has N
nodes (from array[0]
to array[N1]
), adding the node array[N]
to the heap is done by a push down operation: if the node array[N]
is smaller than its parent (violating the heap property) it is pushed down by swapping it with the parent, and so on recursively.
Removing the smallest element array[0]
with an heap of N
nodes is done by swapping array[0]
with array[N1]
. If then array[0]
is larger than any of its children, it is swapped with the smallest of the two and so on recursively (push up operation).
Restoring the heap property after an element array[i]
has been modified can be done by a push up or push down operation on that node.
Macro Definition Documentation
#define VL_HEAP_array VL_HEAP_type* 
Data type of the heap container
Const data type of the heap container
#define VL_HEAP_array HeapType* 
Data type of the heap container
Const data type of the heap container
#define VL_HEAP_array HeapType const* 
Data type of the heap container
Const data type of the heap container
#define VL_HEAP_prefix HeapObject 
Prefix of the heap functions
#define VL_HEAP_type HeapType 
Data type of the heap elements
Function Documentation

inline 
 Parameters

array heap array. indexA index of the first element A
to compare.indexB index of the second element B
to comapre.
 Returns
 a negative number if
A<B
, 0 ifA==B
, and a positive number if ifA>B
.

inline 
 Parameters

array pointer to the heap node array. index index of the node to push up.
 Parameters

index a node index.
 Returns
 index of the left child.
 Parameters

index a node index.
 Returns
 index of the parent node.

inline 
 Parameters

array pointer to the heap array. heapSize (in/out) size of the heap.
 Returns
 index of the popped element.
The function extracts from the heap the element of index 0 (the smallest element) and decreases heapSize
.
The element extracted is moved as the first element after the heap end (thus it has index heapSize
). For convenience, this index is returned by the function.
Popping from an empty heap is undefined.

inline 
 Parameters

array pointer to the heap array. heapSize (in/out) size of the heap.
The function adds to the heap the element of index heapSize
and increments heapSize
.
 Parameters

index a node index.
 Returns
 index of the right child.

inline 
 Parameters

array array of nodes. array heap array. indexA index of the first node to swap. indexB index of the second node to swap.
The function swaps the two heap elements a and @ b. The function uses a temporary element and the copy operator, which must be well defined for the heap elements.

inline 
 Parameters

array pointer to the heap array. heapSize size of the heap. index index of the node to push up.

inline 
 Parameters

array pointer to the heap array. heapSize size of the heap. index index of the node to update.
The function updates the heap to account for a change to the element of index index
in the heap.
Notice that using this function requires knowing the index of the heap index of element that was changed. Since the heap swaps elements in the array, this is in general different from the index that that element had originally.